Goal 15: Life on land

 

Human life depends on the earth as much as the ocean for sustenance and livelihood. Plant life provides 80 per cent of the human diet, and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resource and means of development. Forests account for 30 per cent of the earth’s surface, providing habitats to millions of species, serving as sources of clean air and water, and combating climate change.

Today we are seeing unprecedented land degradation, and the loss of arable land at 30 to 35 times the historical rate. Drought and desertification increase every year, amounting to the loss of 12 million hectares and affecting poor communities across the globe. Of 8,300 known animal breeds, 8 percent are already extinct, and 22 per cent are at risk of extinction.

About 80 per cent of the Arab region is made up of dryland ecosystems, which are particularly vulnerable to converging risks from climate change. Regionally, over 1,000 species are under threat, with a majority critically endangered.

The SDGs aim to conserve and restore the use of terrestrial ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, drylands and mountains by 2020. Stopping deforestation also helps to mitigate the impact of climate change. Urgent action must be taken to reduce the loss of natural habitats and biodiversity which are part of our common heritage.

 

Facts and figures

1.6 billion

Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihoods.

80%

Forests are home to more than 80 percent of all terrestrial species of animals, plants and insects.

2.6 billion

2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture for a living.

33%

Nature-based climate solutions can contribute about a third of CO2 reductions by 2030.

$125 trillion

The value of ecosystems to human livelihoods and well-being is $US125 trillion per year.

60-80%

Mountain regions provide 60-80 percent of the Earth's fresh water.

  • By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

  • By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

  • By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

  • By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

  • Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

  • Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed

  • Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

  • By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species

  • By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts

  • Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

  • Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation

  • Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities
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