Despite advancements on many development fronts, Yemen continues to face considerable development challenges. It ranks 133 out of 177 countries in the 2010 UNDP Human Development Index (0.439).
Progress in human and other development indicators, while steady, has been too slow to assure attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 as indicated in the second Millennium Development Goals Report for Yemen (2010). However, the possibility of reaching the MDG on universal primary education, under-5 child mortality, and malaria and tuberculosis has not been ruled out.
Yemen faces long-term challenges; among which, high fertility rates and rapid population growth; lack of access to livelihood opportunities for the rural population, which counts 76% of the total population; and lack of basic infrastructure, such as schools, water scheme, health facilities, access roads and markets in many rural areas. The country is also facing a critical challenge related growing imbalances between the available water resources and consumption that will lead to further depletion of groundwater reserves.